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Babi09: Aikin kiyaye muhalli
>>[Aikin kiyaye muhalli a kasar Sin]

Takaitaccen bayani

Ko da yake mayar da kasar Sin ta zama wata kasa mai masana'antu bisa babban mataki na da tarihin rabin karni ne kawai, amma sabo da yawan mutane da saurin bunkasuwar kasar da kuma sauran wasu matsalolin manufofin da aka dauka a da, shi ya sa matsalolin muhilli da albarkatu sun yi tsanani sosai, halin da ake ciki ya yi tsanani sosai wajen muhalli. Muhimman alamomi su ne: zaizayewar ruwa da kasa tana ta kara tsanani a kowace rana, saurin kwararowar hamada yana ta karawa, kuma fadin kurmi ya ragu sosai, an lahanta bishiyoyi masu yawa, yawancin halittu masu rai an lahanta su sosai, kuma yawansu ya kara raguwa da sauri, kazancewar ruwa da na iska sun yi tsanani.

A farkon shekaru 7 na karnin da ya wuce, bisa kokarin taron kiyaye muhallin dan Adam na M.D.D., kasar Sin ta fara aikin kiyaye muhalli. Bayan da aka shafe shekaru fiye da 20 ana ta samun bunkasuwa, kasar Sin ta riga ta kafa wani gwargwadon cikakken tsarin dokoki da na manufofi na yin rigakafi da kawar da kazamtaccen wuri da kiyaye albarkatun kasa, yawan kudin da kasar ta ware domin kiyaye muhalli yana ta karuwa sannu a hankali. Amma idan an kwatanta kasar Sin da kasashe masu sukuni, sai a gane cewa, tsarin manufofin da kasar Sin ta tsayar wajen kiyaye muhalli ba cikakke ba ne, idan an duba abubuwan da aka tsayar cikin manufofin, sai a gane cewa manufofi da matakai da yawa wadanda aka kafa, an kafa su ne su ne bisa tushen shirin gargajiya da umurnin hukumomi na gwamnatoci na matakai daban-daban, a wurare da yawa, sassan kiyaye muhalli na gwamnati ba su mai da karfin aiwatar da dokoki yadda ya kamata ba, sabo da haka ba su iya samun tabbaci ga aiwatar da manufofi daban-daban ba, wannan ya hana kyautatuwar ingancin muhalli kai tsaye. Yanzu, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta riga ta tsai da muhimman manufofin kara karfin kiyaye muhalli, ta yadda za a sa kasar Sin ta tabbatar da kara samun bunkasuwar tattalin arziki da zaman al'umma da sauri kuma lami lafiya, sa'an nan kuma, ta kiyaye cudanyar mutune da sauran halittu cikin jituwa.

Halin da ake ciki kan batun ruwaye

Yawancin ruwayen da ke kwance ko malala a kan kasa na kasar Sin suna cikin manyan koguna 7, wato kogin Yangtse da Rawayen kogi da kogin Songhua da kogin Liao da kogin Pearl kogin Hai da kuma kogin Huai. Bisa rahoton da babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin ta bayar kan "ingancin muhallin kasar Sin na shekarar 2003", an bayyana cewa, kazancewar ruwa da aka yi cikin wadannan manyan koguna 7 na kasar Sin ta yi ta samun kyautatuwa. Bisa kididdigar da aka yi a shekarar 2003 an ce, yawan ruwayen kasar Sin wadanda ingancinsu ya kai matsayi na farko zuwa na 3 ya kai kashi 37.7 bisa 100, amma yawan rabon nan bai kai sulusi ba a shekarar 2001.

Daga cikin wadannan manyan koguna 7, kazancewar ruwa da ake yi a kwarin kogin Hai da na kogin Liao ne ta fi tsanani. Muhimman abubuwan da suke nuna kazancewar ruwaye na wadannan manyan koguna 7 su ne, kayayyakin man fetur, da yawan iskar Oxygen da abubuwa masu rai ke bukata, da yawan amino- nitrogen da potassium permanganate da phenol da mercury. Wajen tafkuna da mataran ruwa kuma, an yi kazancewar nitrogenous da phosphorus sosai cikin muhimman tafkuna, har an sami matsalar yawan kayayyakin gina jiki da ake bukata a ruwan fiye da kima, matsalar nan ta fi tsanani a babban tafkin Dianchi, amma a tafkin Tai, babban tafki na 3 da tafkin Bochao, babban tafki na 5 na kasar Sin ma akwai wannan matsala.

A galibi dai ingancin ruwayen da ke karkashin kasa da ke yawancin birane da jihohin kasar Sin yana da kyau, amma a wasu wurare an kazamtar da irin wannan ruwa, kuma matsalar nan ta yi tsanani a wasu wurare kadan, musamman ma a cibiyoyin biranen wadanda yawancin mutane ke zaune a cunkushe, wadanda kuma aka mayar da su da su zama birane masu masana'anta. Muhimmin dalilin da ya sa haka shi ne sabo da yawan nitrate da amino-nitrogen da iron da manganese da chloride da sulphate da ke cikin ruwayen da ke karkashin kasa na wadannan wurare ya wuce yadda ya kamata.

Halin da ake ciki kan batun gas

Cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, a galibi dai ingancin iska na biranen kasar Sin ya samu kyautatuwa, amma har yanzu da akwai birane wadanda yawansu ya kai kusan sulusani wadanda kuma ingancin iska nasu bai kai mataki na 2 na ma'aunin ingancin iska na kasar ba. Kananan abubuwan da ke cikin iska sun zama muhimmin abun kazantawa wanda ya jawo mugun tasiri ga ingancin iska na birane, amma a galibi kuwa kazancewar iska a sakamakon wadannan kananan abubuwa na biranen da ke arewancin kasar ta fi ta kudancin kasar tsanani. Muhimman birane masu kazancewar iska mai tsanani sabo da wadannan kananan abubuwa suna barbazuwa a arewancin kasar Sin, da arewa maso yammacin kasar, da arewa maso gabashin kasar da tsakiyar kasar, da kuma gabashin lardin Sichuan da birnin Chongqing. Daga cikin su da akwai wasu birane wadanda ke da matsalar kazancewar iska mai tsanani sabo da abin da ake kira sulphur dioxide. Shiyyoyin kudancin kasar kuma suna da matsalar kazancewar iska sabo da ruwan guba wadda ta barbazu a wurare masu fadi.

Halin da ake ciki kan batun halittu masu rai

Shingen bishiyoyi

A cikin shekaru da yawa da suka wuce, kasar Sin ta sami fifitattun nasarori wajen kiyaye kungurmin daji da dasa bishiyoyi. Bisa kididdigar da aka yi an ce, zuwa shekarar 2002, fadin kasa da aka dasa bishiyoyi a kasar Sin ya riga wuce kadada miliyan 46, saurin karuwar gandunan daji da aka kirkiro da kuma sikelinsu dukkansu sun kai matsayin farko na duniya. Cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, fadin kasa da aka dasa bishiyoyi ya karu da sauri a kasar Sin, yawan shingen bishiyoyi ya karu daga kashi kashi 14 bisa 100 a shekarar 1998 zuwa kashi 16.55 bisa 100 a shekarar 2002, jimlar fadin kunkurmin daja ta kai kadada miliyan 158. Bisa shirin dogon wa'adi da kasar Sin take aiwatarwa domin rika samun bunkasuwa mai dorewa da raya kasar Sin mai launin kore, an ce, zuwa shekarar 2010, kasar sin za ta yi kokarin kara yawan shingen bishiyoyi har zuwa sama da kashi 20 bisa 100.

Kwararowar hamada

Kasar Sin tana daya daga cikin kasashen wadanda suke shan bala'in kwararowar hamada mafi tsanani na duniya. Cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, ko da yake an samu fifitattun nasarori wajen ayyukan tsare iska da rairayi da raya halittu masu rai a wasu wuraren kasar Sin, amma a galibi kuwa ba a samu wata hanya mai amfani ba wajen hana lalacewar muhalli, wuraren da aka yi zaizayewar kasa da kwararowar hamada sai kara fadadawa suke. Bisa sakamakon da aka samu a shekarar 1999 wajen yin bincike na karo na 2 kan hasarar kasa da kwararowar hamada na kasar Sin an ce, jimlar fadin yankunan duk kasar da aka yi kwararowar hamada ta kai fiye da murabba'in kilomita miliyan daya da dubu 740, wato ta kai kusan kashi 20 bisa duk fadin kasar baki daya, kuma saurin fadadawar yankuna masu kwararowar hamada ya kai wajen murabba'in kilomita 3400 a kowace shekara. Yanzu, da akwai mutane kusan mliyan 170 na kasar Sin wadanda ke shan kurari mai tsanani wajen aikin kawo albarka da zaman rayuwarsu sabo da kwararowar hamada, yawan hasarar tattalin arziki da aka samu kai tsaye sabo da kwararowar hamada ya kai kudin Sin wato Reminbi fiye da Yuan biliyan 5.4 a kowace shekara.

Zaizayewar ruwa da kasa

Zaizayewar ruwa da kasa sun zama bala'in geology da matsalar muhalli wadanda suka jawo barna ga albarkatun yankunan kasar Sin wadanda kuma akan gamuwa da su a kasar, daga cikinsu kuma zaizayewar ruwa da kasa da aka yi a rawayen faffadan tsauni sun fi tsanani, kuma sun jawo barna mafi tsanani. Babban halin da ake ciki a kasar Sin wajen zaizayewar ruwa da kasa shi ne, an kyautata muhalli a wasu wurare, amma a galibi dai fadin wuraren da suke shan bala'in sabo da wannan matsala yana ta fadadawa, yawan ayyukan da aka yi wajen kyautata muhali bai kai yawan barnar da aka kawo ba. Yanzu a kasar Sin da akwai gonaki kusan sulusi wadanda suke shan bala'in zaizayewar ruwa da kasa. Jimlar kasa da ta zaizaye ta kai fiye da ton biliyan 5 a kowace shekara, wato ta tashi bawon kasa mai kauri centimita daya da aka kwashe daga wajen gonakin duk kasa baki daya, yawan abubuwa masu kara ingancin kasa da suka zagwanye ya tashi har ya kai ingantaccen takin zamani mai nauyin Ton miliyan 40, wato ya kai duk yawan nitrogen da phosphorus da potassium da aka fitar cikin shekara daya a kasar. Muhimmin dalilin da ya sa aka yi zaizayewar ruwa da kasa shi ne sabo da hanyar da ake bi wajen yin noma ba ta da gaskiya da kuma lalacewar tsire-tsire. Fadin gonakin da ke shiyyoyin tsaunuka da tuddai na duk kasa baki daya ya kai kadada kusan miliyan 27, daga cikin su fadin gonakin da ke kan tuddai ya kai kadada kusan miliyan 7, sauran gonaki masu fadin kadada miliyan 20 kuma suna nan suna shan bala'in zaizayewar ruwa da kasa bisa matakai daban-daban.

Wurare masu damshi

Fadin wurare masu damshi na kasar Sin ya kai kadada kusan miliyan 66, (ban da koguna da kududdufai), wato fadinsu ya kai kashi 10 cikin 100 bisa na wurare masu damshi na duk duniya baki daya, kuma ya kai matsayi na farko na Asiya da matsayi na 4 na duk duniya. Bisa karuwar da kasar Sin ta samu wajen fahimtar muhimmancin wurare masu damshi an ce, tun daga shekarar 1991 zuwa yanzu, kasar Sin ta dauki tarin matakai masu amfani domin kiyaye da kuma yin amfani da wurare masu damshi, ta kiyaye wurare masu damshi da ire-iren halittu masu rai da ke wadannan wurare a gwargado. Amma bisa matsin da aka yi daga fannoni 2 wato karuwar yawan mutane da yawan tattalin arziki, 'yan Adam suna ta kara dogara da kuma bude albarkatun wurare masu damshi domin aikin kawo albarka da zaman rayuwarsu, wannan ya lalata wurare masu damshi da halittu masu rai iri daban-daban kai tsaye. Cikin shekaru 40 da suka wuce, da akwai wuraren rairayi da wurare masu damshi da ke bakin teku sun bace, kuma da akwai tafukuna kusan kashi 13 bisa 100 na duk kasar Sin sun riga sun kafe, kuma kashi 78 bisa 100 na wurare masu damshi na halitta na filin karkarar koguna 3 da ke lardin Heilongjiang lalace sam, yawan tsire-tsiren ruwa na tafkin Hong ya ragu da iri 24, ire-iren kifaye kuma sun ragu da kusan 50. Lalacewar albarkatun wurare masu damshi za ta kawo barazana mai tsanani ga bunkasuwar tattalin arziki da muhallin zaman rayuwar mazauna na wadannan wurare, kiyaye wurare masu damshi da ire-iren halittu masu rai nasu sun riga sun zama muhimman batutuwa da suka jawo hankulan gwamnatin kasar Sin jama'arta.

Halin da ake ciki kan batun ire-iren halittu masu rai

Ire-iren dabbobi da tsire-tsire

Kasar Sin tana daya daga cikin kasashe mafiya yawan ire-iren halittu masu rai na duniya. Tana da manyan tsire-tsire fiye da iri 30,000, da dabbobi masu kashin baya iri 6347, wato sun dauki kusan kashi 10 cikin 100 da kashi 14 cikin 100 bisa na dabbobi da tsire-tsiren duk duniya bi da bi. Ire-irin halittun da suke zama a kasa suna da yawan gaske, wato yawansu ya kai 599. Kasar Sin ba ma kawai tana da yawan ire-iren halittu masu rai na daji da tsare-tsaren hilittu masu rai ba, hatta ma tana da tsire-tsire da dabbobi iri daban-daban wadanda mutane ke kiwon su da irin wadanda siffofinsu sun ka yi kama da namun daji. Kasar Sin tana da albarkatun dabbobi da tsire-tsire masu wadata sosai, idan an misilta kasar Sin ta yi kama da wani siton gene na halitta na albarkattun dabbobi da tsire-tsiren duniya, ana iya cewa wannan kiyasi da aka yi ba kwaramniya ba ce ko kadan.(Hoton da aka dauka a sama shi ne wani rin naman daji mai daraja wanda ba safai akan gan shi a kasar Sin ba wato babban panda).

Dabbobi da tsire-tsire wadanda ke kusan karewa

Sabo da kalilan albarkatun kungunrmin daji da lalacewar muhallin zaman dabbobi da tsire-tsire na daji, shi ya sa dabbobi da tsire-tsire masu yawa kuma masu daraja wadanda suke nadiri ne suna kusan karewa. Bisa kididdigar da aka yi ba cikakke ba an ce, irin dabbobi da tsire-isiren kasar Sin wadanda ke kusan karewa sun kai kashi 15 zuwa 20 cikin kashi 100 bisa na jimlar dabbobi da tsire-tsiren da ake da su kasar. Yanzu a kasar Sin da akwai halittu masu rai kusan iri 200 wadanda suka bace, kuma akwai dabbobi masu kashin baya da suke zama a kasa fiye da iri 300, da tsire-tsire na daji kusan iri 410 na sassa 13 wadanda ke kusan karewa. Alal misali, yawan goggan birrai masu bakin tuntu a kai da bakaken bear na lardin Hainan sun ragu sosai, irin tsire-tsiren da ba safai akan gan su ba kamar itatuwa masu suna Wangtian da Longnaoxiang wadanda suke kusan karewa, irin namun daji kamar su manyan giwaye da nestling peacock sun riga sun riga sun zama nadiri ne, ire-iren dabbobi fiye da 20 masu daraja ciki har da David's deer da dawaki na daji da damisoshin jihar Zinjiang wadanda suka riga suka kare ko kusan karewa.

Ire-iren halittu masu shigo da hari daga waje

Ire-iren halittu masu shigo da hari daga waje ma'anarsa ita ce, bayan da halittu masu rai da ba wurin ba sun shiga cikin sabon tsarin rayayyun halittu, yawansu ya karu-karuwar gaske, kuma sun barbazu ko'ina, sabo da haka suka jawo matsalar muhallin halittu ta babban lahani ga lafiyar 'yan Adam da bunkasuwar tattalin arziki. Tun shekaru 80 na karni na 20 zuwa yanzu, bisa saurin ci gaban da kasar Sin ta samu wajen bunkasa tattalin arziki tare da kasashen waje da karuwar yawan kai da kawowar mutane, kutsa kai da ire-iren halittu na kasashen waje suka yi wa kasar Sin sai kara tsanani yake a bayyane. A halin yanzu, kusan a ce a dukkan larduna da jihohi masu ikon tafiyar da harkokin kansu da biranen da ke karkashin gwamnatin tsakiya kai tsaye an gano ire-iren halittu masu shigo da hari daga kasashen waje. Ire-iren halittu masu shigo da hari daga kasashen waje sun riga sun jawo babban lahani ga ire-iren halittu masu rai da muhallin rayayyun halittu na kasar Sin, musamman ma sun jawo tasiri mafi tsanani ga tsarin halittu masu rai na shiyyoyi marasa tsayi daga leburin teku da tsibirorin da ke wurare masu zafi. Cikin watan Janairu na shekarar 2003, bayan da babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin da cibiyar binciken kimiyya ta kasar suka yi bincike, sun sanar da cewa, halittu masu rai iri 16 ciki har da lolium temulentum da dawa ta karya da farin moth na Amirka da bullfrog wadanda suka shigo da hari daga kasashen waje wadanda kuma aka shigo da su cikin"sunayen blackist"na kashi na farko.

>>[Matakan kiyaye muhalli]

Aikin daidaita matsalar kazancewar muhalli

Cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta kafa shiyyoyi da yawa wadanda za a mai da muhimmanci don daidaita matsalarsu ta kazancewar muhalli, kuma ta tanada da aiwatar da shirin kayyace yawan abubuwan kazantarwa da aka zubar a kwarin kogin kawancewar ruwa da manufofin tafiyar da harkokin.

Zuwa karshen shekarar 2002, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta riga ta ware kudin Renminbi fiye da Yuan biliyan 40 domin kiyaye muhallin shiyyar matarin ruwa da ta madatsar ruwa na babban aikin tsare ruwa na Sanxia bisa kogin Yangtse. A shekarar 2001, yawan muhimman wuraren kazantarwa da ke shiyyar matarin ruwa na Sanxia ya ragu da guda 37, yawan kazamtaccen ruwan da muhimman masana'antu masu kazantarwa guda 60 da ke shiyyar suka zubar ya ragu da kashi 15.6 cikin 100 bisa na shekarar 2000, nauyin abubuwan kazantarwa iri daban-daban da aka zubar ya kai Ton 8000, daga cikinsu yawan abubuwan hada magunguna da aka zubar ya ragu da da kashi 48.3 cikin 100 bisa na shekarar 2000. Daga shekarar 2002 an fara daidaita matsanancin halin kazantarwa da ake ciki a kwarai tafkin Tai ta hanyar musamman wato hanyar jawo ruwa daga sauran wurare, wato an jawo ruwa mai tsabta daga kogin Yangtse zuwa wannan kwarin tafkin yake da ruwa mai dadi wanda kuma fadinsa ya kai murabba'in kilomita 36,900. aikin nan da ake yi ya riga ya kyautat muhallin ruwa na kwarin tafkin Tai sosai, har ya sa yawan muhimman abubuwan kazantarwa iri 3 da ke cikin ruwan wato phosphorus da nitrogen da potassium permanganate sun ragu, wato yawan phosphorus ya rugu da kashi 56 cikin 100, yawan nitrogen ya rugu da kashi 25 cikin 100, kuma yawan potassium permanganate ya ragu da kashi 9 cikin 100 bisa na shekaru 4 da suka wuce. Ingancin ruwan fanfo na birnin Shanghai da sauran birane wadanda aka samar masu da ruwan sha daga tafkin tai ya kyautatu sosai, yawan mutane masu samun muriya ya kai kusan miliyan 10.

Sa'an nan kuma, ana tafiyar da ayyukan sa ido da kuma kyautata ingancin iska a ko'ina na duk kasa baki daya. Ingancin iska ta biranen duk kasar yana ta ci gaba da samun kyautatuwa a shekarar 2002, daga cikin birane 339 wadanda sassan kiyaye muhali ke sa musu ido, da akwai guda 117 wadanda ingancin iska nasu ya riga ya kai ko kuma ya wuce mataki na 2 na ma'aunin ingancin iska na kasar, wadanda daga cikinsu kuma da birane guda 10 ciki har da birnin Haikou da na Sanya da na shaoging wadanda ingancin iska nasu ya kai mataki na farko. Birnin Beijing ya samu babbar nasar wajen daidaita matsalar kazancewar iska, A shekarar 2002 a unguwoyin birnin yawan kwanakin da aka samu ingancin iska na mataki na 2 ko kuma ya fi na mataki na 2 kyau ya kai 201, wato ya karu da kwanaki 19 bisa na shekarar 2001. Yawan gas da motocin suka fesa a yawancin biranen kasar Sin ya kai ma'auni mai lamba na farko na turai, yanzu birnin Beijing da sauran manyan biranen kasar sun riga sun fara aiwatar da ma'auni mai lamba na 2 na Turai.

Aikin kiyaye albarkatun kungurmin daji

Tun shekaru 50 na karnin da ya wuce, kasar Sin ta kago al'ajabi na kafa gandunan bishiyoyin duniya ta dan Adam. Daga shekarar 1981 zuwa ta 2002, yawan itatuwan da aka dasa bisa son rai ya kai fiye da biliyan 39.8 a duk kasar baki daya. A halin yanzu, fadin kasar da aka dasa bishiyoyi ya kai kadada miliyan 46.67 a kasar Sin, wato ya kai wajen kashi 26 cikin 100 bisa duk fadin gandunan daji da aka kirkiro a duniya, kuma ya kai matsayin farko na duniya, yawan shingen bishiyoyi ya kai kashi 16.55 bisa 100. aalbarkacin dinga samun raguwar yawan albarkatun kungurmin daji na duniya, kasar Sin ta ringa samun karuwa a fannoni 2 wato fannin fadin kungurmin daji da yawan bishiyoyin da ake da su, sabo da haka hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta M.D.D. ta mai da ita da ta zama daya daga cikin kasashe 15 wadanda ke da kungurman daji mafiya yawa na duniya. Daga shekarar 1998 zuwa ta 2001, gwamnatin tsakiya ta ware kudin Sin wato Yuan biliyan 42.7 domin kiyaye tsire-tsiren da ke shiyyar tsakiya da ta yammacin kasar inda mutane masu talauci ke zaune a cunkushe, da ba da kudin taimako ga manoma na wurin don himmantar da su da su mai da gonakin da aka yi ta yin noma fiye da kima su zama gandunan daji da filayen ciyawa. Ana nan ana tariyar da aikin mayar da gonaki su zama gandunan daji daga duk fannoni a larduna da jihohi masu ikon tafiyar da harkokin kansu da biranen da ke karkashin gwamnatin tsakiya kai tsaye guda 25 na kasar, zuwa shekarar 2002, fadin gonakin da aka mai da su gandunan daji ya kai kadada miliyan 6.44 a duk kasar, daga cikin su fadin gonakin da aka mai da su gandunan daji ya kai kadada miliyan 3.18, saurna kadada miliyan 3.26 kuwa sauruka ne a da, amma yanzu an dasa bishiyoyi a kai. An riga an fara samun sakamako wajen aikin mayar da gonaki su zama gandunan daji, matsalar zaizayewar ruwa da kasa ta samu kyautatuwa a gwargwado a wasu shiyyoyi. Wani mataki daban mai amfani da aka dauka don kiyaye albarkatun kungurmin daji shi ne aikin kiyaye gandunan daji na halitta wanda aka fara tafiyar da shi daga shekarar 1998, aikin nan ya nemi mutane da su daina sare bishiyoyin halitta a ko'ina na duk kasar baki daya. A shiyyoyi da yawa ma'aikatan tumba na da, amma yanzu sun zama masu tsaron gandun daji.

Bisa makasudin da aka tsayar cikin rahoton binciken muhimman tsare-tsaren sha'anin gandun daji domin rinka samun ci gaba mai dorewa a kasar Sin an ce, zuwa shekarar 2050, yawan shingen bishiyoyi na kasar Sin zai kai kashe 28 bisa 100.

Aikin kiyaye wurare masu damshi

Tun bayan da gwamnatin kasar Sin ta shiga cikin "yarjejeniyar wurare masu damshi na kasashen duniya" a shekarar 1992, ta himmantu ga yin ceto da farfado da albarkatun wurare masu damshi, an kiyaye wasu wurare masu damshi na halitta wadanda suka taba gamuwa da lahani. Zuwa karshen shekarar 2002, yawan shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta iri daban-daban da kasar Sin ta kafa ya kai 353 a wurare masu damshi, shiyyoyin da ake kiyayyewa da yawa wadanda aka kafa su a wuraren rairayi da de bakin teku da tafkuna da koguna. Daga cikin su da akwai guda 21 wadannan da aka shigar da su cikin sunayen muhimman wurare masu damshi na kasashen duniya, fadin wadannan wurare ya kai kadada miliyan 3 da dubu 30.

"Shirin aikin kiyaye wurare masu damshi na kasar Sin" wanda aka fara tafiyar da shi daga watan Nuwamba na shekarar 2000, wanda kuma aka tsayar bisa shugabancin hukumar gandun daji ta kasar, kuma bisa halartar ma'aikatu da hukumomi 17 na majalisar gudanarwa. Bisa shirin da aka tsayar an ce, zuwa shekarar 2010, kasar Sin za ta hana lalacewar wurare masu damshi na halitta sabo da aikace-aikacen 'yan adam, zuwa shekarar 2020 kuma za a farfado da wurare masu damshi wadanda ke lalacewa ko tsokewa sannu a hankali.

Aikin yin rigakafi da daidaita matsalar kwararowar hamada

Kwararowar hamada tana daya daga cikin matsaloli mafiya tsanani dangane da muhallin rayayyun halittu na kasar Sin, fadin yankunan kasar Sin da aka yi kwararowar hamada ya kai murabba'in kilomita miliyan 2.62, wato ya wuce jimlar fadin gonakin kasar nesa ba kusa ba, kuma ya kai wajen kashi 27 cikin 100 bisa na dukkan yankunan kasar. A halin yanzu ko da yake an hana yunkurin kwararowar hamada a wasu wurare, amma har ila yau yawan karuwar fadin kwararowar hamada ya kai fiye da murabba'in kilomita 300 a kowace shekara.

Hukumar gandun daji ta kasar Sin ta riga ta fara tafiyar da wani shirin yin rigakafi da tare rairayi na duk kasar, zuwa shekarar 2010 za a yi matukar kokarin hana yunkurin kwararowar hamada. Zuwa shekarar 2030 kuma fadin gonakin da aka yi kwararowar hamada zai ragu a kowace shekara bisa tushen sakamakon da aka samu a lokacin da ya gabata. Zuwa shekarar 2050 kuma, za a daidaita matsalar kwararowar hamada bisa sharudan tattalin arziki da fasaha da ake da su a lokacin, a karshe kuma za a kafa cikakken tsarin rayayyun halittu a shiyyoyin hamada.

Aikin kiyaye ire-iren halittu masu rai

Bisa matsayi na daya daga cikin kasashen da suka daddale "yarjejeniyar ire-iren hlittu masu rai" tun tuni, kasar Sin kullum tana nuna himma ga halartar harkokin kasashen duniya dangane da yarjejeniyar, kuma ta ba da ra'ayoyinta kan manyan al'amuran kasashen duniya da suka shafi yarjejeniyar. Kasar Sin kuma tana daya daga cikin tsirarun kasashen duniya wadanda suka kama gaba domin aiwatar da shirin ayyukan yarjejeniyar, wato a shekarar 1994 ta tsai da "shirin ayyukan kiyaye ire-iren halittu masu rai na kasar Sin", wannan ya samar da dokokin da za a bi domin yin tarin ayyukan kiyaye muhallin rayayyun halittu. Bisa "dokar kiyaye namun daji" an ce, dukkan laifuffukan da aka yi na lahanta albarkatun naman daji za a yanke musu hukunci mai tsanani har da hukuncin kisa.

Sassan da abin ya shafa na gwamnati sun mai da muhimmanci kan ayyuka masu amfani da aka yi domin kiyaye albarkatun halittu masu rai. Cikin watan Janairu na shekarar 2003, cibiyar binciken kimiyya ta kasar Sin ta ba da shawarar yin wani aikin ceton tsire-tsire da ke dab da karewa, an tsai da shirin cewa, cikin shekaru 15 masu zuwa za a sa ire-iren tsire-tsiren da ke cikin manyan lambunan tsire-tsire 12 su karu daga dubu 13 zuwa dubu 21, kuma za a kafa wani babban lambu mafi fadi na duniya, wato fadinsa zai kai murabba'in kilomita 458. Cikin wannan aikin da za a yi, za a ware kudin Sin fiye da Yuan biliyan 300 domin dasa bishiyoyi masu daraja da kuma kiyaye su, kuma za a kafa siton ajiye gene wato kwayoyin halitta wadanda tsaunin Qinling da birnin Wuhan da jihar Xishuangbanna da birnin Beijing zai kasance cibiyarsa.

Banda wannan kuma an fara samun sakamakon aikin ceton namun daji da ke dab da karewa, an riga an kafa cibiyoyin hayayyafa da kuma kiwon namun daji 250 a duk kasa baki daya, kuma an yi aikin musamman na ceton namun daji iri 7 ciki har da babban panda da red ibis. Yanzu an kiyaye naman daji mai suna babban panda wanda aka dauke shi bisa matsayin "abu mai daraja na kasa", wanda kuma ake kira "rayayyen dutsen tarihi" na dabbobi, wanda kuma yawansu ya kai fiye da 1000, muhallin zaman rayuwarsu kuma ya yi ta samun kyautatuwa. Yawan red ibis ya karu daga guda 7 zuwa wajen 250, da haka aka kara sasauta halin dab da karewar wadannan dabbobi. Yawan Chinese alligator da ake kiwonsu ta hanyar taimakon dan Adam ya kai kusan dubu 10, irin deer na lardin Hainan sun karu daga 26 zuwa fiye da 700, yawan irin gull mai daraja ya karu daga 2000 zuwa fiye da 10,000, damisoshi wadanda ba safai akan ga irinsu a da ba, amma yanzu sukan bullo a arewaci da gabashi da kuma kudancin kasar Sin, kuma ana nan ana kara saurin yin bincike kan hayayyafar white-flag dolphin ta hanyar dan Adam. Sabo da an tsaya ga kai farmaki kan farautar da aka yi ba bisa doka ba, ga kuma taimakon da kungiyoyin kiyaye dabbobi da yawa na kasashen duniya, irin karkanda na Tibet wadanda yawansu ya ragu da sauri sabo da kisan gilla da aka yi musu ba bisa doka ba sun samu damar yin zaman rayuwa, yanzu yawansu ya kai wajen 7000.

Aikin raya shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta

Shiyyar kiyaye halitta ta farko ta kasar Sin ita ce shiyyar tsaunin Dinghu da ke birnin Zhaoqing na lardin Guangdong wadda aka shaya a shekarar 1956. Shiyyar kiyaye halitta ta mafarin koguna 3 wadda aka kafa a watan Agusta na shekarar 2000 ita shiyya ce mafi fadi (wato duk fadinta ya kai murabba'in kilomita dubu 316), kuma mafi tsayi (wato matsakaicin tsayinta daga leburin teku ya kai fiye da mita 4000), kuma mafi yawan ire-iren halittu masu rai na kasar Sin. Shiyyar nan tana tsakiyar faffadan tsaunin Qinghai-Tibet, kuma tana shiyyar mafarin kogin Yangtse da Rawayen kogi da kuma kogin Lancang. Zuwa karshen shekarar 2002, yawan shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta iri daban-daban da aka kafa a duk kasa baki daya ya kai 1757, duk fadinsu ya kai kadada miliyan 132.95, wato ya kai kashi 13.2 cikin 100 bisa duk fadin yankunan kasar. Wadannan shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta sun ba da babban taimako wajen kyautata mafarin ruwa, da kiyaye ruwa da kasa, da tare iska da rairayi, da kuma kyautata yanayin sama na wadannan wurare. Yawancinsu kuma muhimman shiyyoyi ne na kiyaye ire-iren halittu masu rai na duk duniya baki daya. Lardin da yake da shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta mafiya yawa shi ne lardin Yunnan, wato yana da irin wadannan shiyyoyi 152, wadanda fadinsu ya kai kadada miliyan 2.8. Shiyyoyin kiyaye halitta guda 22 ciki har da shiyyar Wolong da ta kwarin Jiuzhai na lardin Sichuan, da shiyyar tsaunin Dinghu ta lardin Guangdong da shiyyar kogin Baishui ta lardin Gansu wadanda kungiyar UNESCO ta M.D.D. ta shigar da su cikin "shiyyoyin kiyaye halittu masu rai na duniya".

>>[Cigaba da Makasudin kiyaye muhalli]

Ci gaban da kasar Sin ta samu wajen kiyaye muhalli

Bayan da aka shafe shekaru fiye da 30 ana ta yin kokari ba tare da kasala ba a kasar Sin, an samu nasarorin da kowa ya amince da su wajen sha'anin kiyaye muhalli na kasar. A lokacin da ake kyautata tsarin tattalin arziki da kara biyan bukatun da ake yi a cikin kasar, an kara yin ayyukan kiyaye muhallin kasar Sin sosai. A takaice dai, an sarrafa halin kara lalacewar kazamcewar wuri a duk kasar, ingancin muhalli na wasu birane da shiyyoyi ya samu kyautatuwa, wannan ya ba da taimako yadda ya kamata ga muhimman tsare-tsaren da ake tafiyar da su a kasar Sin domin samun ci gaba mai dorewa.

Gwamnatin kasar Sin ta mai da muhimmanci kan ayyukan kiyaye muhalli

Daga shekarar 1997 zuwa yanzu, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta shafe shekaru 7 a jere tana yin tarukan tattaunawa a duk lokutan da ake yin"taruka iri 2"a kowace shekara, inda aka saurari rahotanin da aka bayar game da ayyukan kiyayye muhalli, da tsara shirin ayyukan. Shugabannin kasar Sin sun bayyana cewa, kiyaye muhalli wani babban al'amari ne da ya shafi matsalar kara karfin kasa da wadatar da jama'a da kuma shimfida zaman lafiya na kasar, kuma ya shafi kwanciyar hankali na muhallin kasar. A hakika kuwa sha'anin kiyaye muhalli shi ne kiyaye aikin kawo albarkar kasa. Ya kamata a kafa kuma a kyautata tsarin tsai da manufofin muhalli da bunkasuwa daga duk fannoni, ya kamata jami'an wurare daban-daban su kula da matsalar muhalli su da kansu, kuma su dauki babban nauyin matsalar bisa wuyansu. Ya kamata a kara karfin sa ido kan muhalli bisa tsari daya, a kara ware kudi da yawa domin kyautata muhalli, da himmantar da jama'a da su shiga wannan aiki. Ya kamata a tsaya ga yin rigakafi da kawar da kazantar wuri da kiyaye rayayyun halittu tare. Ya kamata a yi babban aiki kan muhimmin abu, kuma a mai da muhimmanci kan ayyukan yin rigakafi da daidaita matsalar kazancewar muhalli ta muhimman birane da ta kwaruruwan koguna da ta shiyyoyi da ta haddin ruwan tekuna.

Cikin gyare-gyaren da aka yi ga hukumomin kasar, an yi ta karfafa sassan kiyaye muhalli. A shekarar 1988, hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar ta daga matsayin hukumar kiyaye muhallin kasar daga sashen kiyaye muhalli na raya birane da garuruwan kasa na da zuwa wata hukumar da ke karkashin majalisar gudanarwar kasar kai tsaye. A shekarar 1993 kuma an kara daga matsayinta da ta zama wata hukuma bisa matsayin mataimakin minista da ke karkashin majalisar gudanarwa kai tsaye. A shekarar 1998 kuma, an kara daga matsayinta da ta zama hukuma bisa matsayin minista da ke karkashin majalisar gudanarwa kai tsaye, kuma an canja sunanta da ya zama babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin.

An sarrafa kazancewar muhalli

Cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, kasar Sin ta rufe da kuma soke kananan masana'antu masu matsanancin kazanta muhalli wadanda yawansu ya kai fiye da dubu 84. Daga cikin masana'antu dubu 238 wadanda ke da matsalar kazantar wuri, kashi 90 bisa 100 wadanda yawan muhimman abubuwan kazancewar muhalli da suka zubar ya kai ma'aunin da aka tanada.

An sami sakamako bisa wani mataki wajen aikin daidaita matsalar kazancewar muhalli a muhimman wuraren da kasar Sin ta tsayar. Kazancewar da aka yi a muhimman rassan kogin Huai ta ragu sosai, yawan kazancewar da aka samu a kwarin kogin Hai da na Liao ya ragu kadan, kuma an sarrafa halin lalacewar sassaucin matsalar yawan kayayyakin gina jikin da ake bukata fiye da kima a ruwan tafkin Dianchi, kuma an sarrafa halin tsanancewar wannan matsala a gwargwado wadda ta faru a tafkin Chao. Yawan abun da ake kira sulphur dioxide da aka zubar a "shiyyoyi 2 masu sarrafa kazancewar muhalli" ya ragu, an kayyade yawan ruwan guba da ta barbazu a fadin wuraren da aka kayyade. Birnin Beijing ya sami babban sakamako wajen daidaita matsalar kazancewar iska. Kuma an fara aikin yin rigakafi da kawar da matsalar kazancewar ruwan tekun Bo.

An karfafa aikin kiyaye muhallin halittu da kyautata shi

Kasar Sin tana aiwatar da ka'idar yin rigakafi da daidaita matsalar kazancewa da kiyaye halittu tare, da yin aikin kiyaye halittu da kyautata aikin tare, haka ya kara saurin ci gaban aikin kiyaye halittu da kyautata shi. Jimlar shiyyoyin kiyaye halittu iri daban- daban da aka kafa a duk kasar ta kai 1227 wadanda fadinsu ya kai kadada miliyan 98.21, wato ya kai kashi 9.85 cikin 100 bisa duk fadin kasar. Kasar Sin kuma ta yarda da yin aikin gwaje-gwaje wajen raya halittu na larduna guda 4 da shiyyoyi fiye da 200 masu ba da misalin wannan fanni bisa matakin kasar.

Kan gandunan daji da ake da su yanzu kuma, an dauki babban matakin yi wa duwatsu da tuddai kangiya domin dasa bishiyoyi, fadin gandunan daji ya kai kadada miliyan 5.19. Da akwai larduna da jihohi masu ikon tafiyar da harkokin kansu da biranen da ke karkashin gwamnatin tsakiya kai tsaye guda 13 wadanda suka hana sare bishiyoyi daga duk fannoni. Yawan shingen bishiyoyi ya kai kashi 16.5 bisa 100 na duk kasa baki daya.

An sami ci gaba wajen aikin kyautata tsarin dokoki na muhalli

A halin yanzu, kasar Sin ta riga ta gyara"dokar yin rigakafi da daidaita kazancewar ruwa", da"dokar kiyaye muhallin tekuna", da "dokar yin rigakafi da daidaita kazantar kwaramniya", da "batutuwa filla-filla domin aiwatar da dokar yin rigakafi da daidaita kazancewar ruwa", da"batutuwan kiyaye muhallin ayyukan gine-gine", da sauran dokokin kiyaye muhalli. Har ila yau, kasar Sin ta kaddamar da dokokin shari'a guda 6 domin kiyaye muhalli, da dokokin shari'a guda 10 dangane da albarkatun kasa, da dokoki fiye da 30 domin kiyaye muhalli, banda wannan kuma ta sanar da dokoki fiye da 90 da ma'aunai iri 430 domin kiyaye muhallin kasar, kuma yawan dokokin da aka bayar a wurare daban-daban ya kai 1020 domin kiyaye muhalli.

Yawan kudin da aka ware domin kiyaye muhalli ya karu

Yawan kudin da kasar Sin ta ware daga shekarar 1996 zuwa karshen shekarar 2000 domin kiyaye muhallin kasar ya kai kudin Sin yuan biliyan 360 wato ya karu da yuan biliyan 230 bisa na shekaru 5 da suka gabata wato daga shekarar 1990 zuwa ta 1995 ya kai kashi 0.93 cikin 100 bisa na yawan GDP wato yawan kudin da aka samu daga wajen aikin kawo albarkar kasa. Musamman ma cikin 'yan shekarun nan da suka wuce, daga cikin basukan da gwamnatin tsakiya ta ci domin raya kasar cikin dogon wa'adi, da akwai Yuan biliyan 46 wanda aka yi amfani da shi domin yin rigakafi da daidaita kazancewar muhalli da raya halittu, wannan ya ba da taimako mai yakini ga kyautata ingancin muhalli, da kara biyan bukatar da ake yi cikin kasar da kara karuwar tattalin arziki.

Tunanin jama'a na kiyaye muhalli ya dagu

Ana nan ana ta kara nuna himma da kwazo don sa lura da nuna goyon baya da kuma shiga cikin ayyukan kiyaye muhalli. Daga shekarar 1998 zuwa ta 1999, babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar da ma'aikatar yin tarbiyya sun taba danka wa cibiyar binciken sigar kasa ta jami'ar Beijing alhakin yin bincike ga iyalan mazauna kusa da dubu 10 na jihohin hukuma 139 da ke bisa matakin gunduma na larduna da jihohi masu ikon tafiyar da harkokin kansu da biranen da ke karkashin gwamnatin tsakiya kai tsaye guda 31, sakamakon bincike ya bayyana cewa, matsalar muhalli ta zama wata matsalar da ta jawo hankulan zamantakewar al'umma sosai. An riga an shigar da aikin ba da ilmi kan aikin kiyaye muhalli cikin ayyukan ba da ilmin tilas na shekaru 9. Aikace-aikacen da ake yi na kafa makarantu da unguwoyi masu launin kore suna ta kara jawo babban tasiri ga zamantakewar al'umma.

Gwamnatin kasar ta himmantar da jama'a da su shiga ayyukan kiyaye muhalli. Ta samar da wayar tarho mai lambar 12369 don kai kara kan matsalar muhalli, Wannan ya kara ba da labarun muhalli, kuma an yi bayani kan ingancin iska na muhimman birane 47 na kasar a kowace rana bi da bi, da ba da labari tun kafin lokaci, da yin bayani kan ingancin ruwa na muhimman sassan kwaruruwan koguna da na wuraren iyo cikin ruwan teku a kowane mako. A gabanni ko a bayan ranar muhalli ta duniya wato ran 5 ga watan Yuni na kowace shekara, akan ba da sanarwa kan ingancin muhalin duk kasa na shekarar da ta wuce.

Makasudin kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin

Makasudin da kasar Sin ta tsayar kan aikin kiyaye muhalli shi ne, zuwa shekarar 2005, halin kazancewar muhalli zai samu sassautawa, za a sarrafa halin kara lalacewar muhallin halittu, ingancin muhalli na birane da na kauyuka masamman ma na manya da na madaidaitan birane da na muhimman shiyyoyi zai samu kyautatuwa, kuma za a kyautata dokokin shari'a da manufofi da tsarin tafiyar da ayyuka kiyaye muhalli wadanda za su dace da tsarin tattalin arziki na kasuwannin gurguzu.

Yawan muhimman abubuwan kazancewa ciki har da abin da ake kira sulphur dioxide, da hayaki da kurar masana'antu, da barbashin diddigar masana'antu wadanda za a zubar da su a shekarar 2005 za su ragu da kashi 10 cikin 100 bisa na shekarar 2000. Yawan sulphur dioxde da za a zubar a shekarar 2005 a shiyyoyin sarrafa ruwan guba da sulphur dioxde kuwa zai ragu da kashi 20 cikin 100 bisa na shekarar 2000.

Domin tabbatar da manufar kiyaye muhalli da aka tsayar wajen shiri na 10 na shekaru 5 na raya tattalin arziki da zaman al'ummar kasar Sin, yawan kudin da za a ware cikin wadannan shekaru 5 domin kiyaye muhallin duk kasa ya kai kudin Sin Yuan biliyan 700, wato ya dauki wajen kashi 1.3 cikin 100 bisa jimlar kudin da aka samu daga aikin kawo albarkar kasa cikin wannan lokaci.

>>[Hukumomi da Kungiyoyin kiyaye muhalli na Gwamnatin Kasar Sin]

Babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin

A shekarar 1998, bisa yardar taro na farko na majalisar wakilan jama'ar kasa ta 9 da tsarin yin gyare-gyaren hukumomin da abin ya shafa na majalisar gudanarwa ta kasar Sin ne, aka kafa babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar da gaske (bisa matakin ma'aikata). Bisa matsayin hukumar kula da ayyukan kiyaye muhalli da ke karkashin majalisar gudanarwa kai tsaye, muhimman ayyuka na babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar su ne: tsara ka'idoji da manufofi da dokokin kiyaye muhallin kasar, da tsai da dokokin tafiyar da harkokin hukuma, da sa ido kan aikace-aikacen bude da kuma yin amfani da albarkatun halitta wadanda ke jawo tasiri ga muhallin halittu, da muhimman ayyukan kyautata muhallin halittu da ayyukan sake mayar da halittun da aka barnata. Hukumomin da ke karkashin wannan babbar hukuma su ne, hukumomin kiyaye muhalli na matakai daban-daban na kananan hukumomin kasar. Shugaban babbar hukumar kiyaye muhallin kasa na yanzu shi ne Mr. Xie Zhenhua.

Adireshin tashar internet na babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin shi ne: http://www.zhb.gov.cn

Kwamitin kasar Sin na yin hadin gwiwa da kasashen duniya

kan muhalli da bunkasuwa

A shekarar 1998, bisa yardar taro na farko na majalisar wakilan jama'ar kasa ta 9 da tsarin yin gyare-gyaren hukumomin da abin ya shafa na majalisar gudanarwa ta kasar Sin ne, aka kafa babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar da gaske (bisa matakin ma'aikata). Bisa matsayin hukumar kula da ayyukan kiyaye muhalli da ke karkashin majalisar gudanarwa kai tsaye, muhimman ayyuka na babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar su ne: tsara ka'idoji da manufofi da dokokin kiyaye muhallin kasar, da tsai da dokokin tafiyar da harkokin hukuma, da sa ido kan aikace-aikacen bude da kuma yin amfani da albarkatun halitta wadanda ke jawo tasiri ga muhallin halittu, da muhimman ayyukan kyautata muhallin halittu da ayyukan sake mayar da halittun da aka barnata. Hukumomin da ke karkashin wannan babbar hukuma su ne, hukumomin kiyaye muhalli na matakai daban-daban na kananan hukumomin kasar. Shugaban babbar hukumar kiyaye muhallin kasa na yanzu shi ne Mr. Xie Zhenhua.

Adireshin tashar internet na babbar hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta kasar Sin shi ne:

http://www.cciced.org

Asusun kiyayen muhalli na kasar Sin

An kafa CEPF wato asusun kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin a watan Afril na shekarar 1993, asusun nan wata kungiyar zamantakewa ce wadda ba ta cin riba kuma tana da ikon shari'a, kuma kungiyar da ba ta gwamnati ba ta farko ta kasar Sin, aikinta na musamman shi ne kiyaye muhalli. Bisa ka'idar "samun kudi daga wajen jama'a da kashe shi domin jama'a da samun alheri domin 'yan Adam", asusun ya tattara kudi ta hanyoyin daban-daban, kuma ya ware kudi domin yabawa mutun shi da kansa da kungiyoyi wadanda suka ba da fifitattun tamako ga sha'anin kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin, da ba da taimako ga aikace-aikace da ayyuka iri daban-daban da suka shafi sha'anin kiyaye muhalli, da tafiyar da aikin yin mu'amalar fasaha da hadin gwiwa tsakanin kasar Sin da kasashen waje domin kiyaye muhalli, da hanzarta ci gaban ayyukan kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin da yin binciken kimiyya, da yin furofaganda da aikin ba da ilmi, da horar da kwararrun mutane, da yin mu'amalar ilmi, da bunkasa sana'ar kiyaye muhalli, da tafiyar da harkokin waje da dai sauran sha'anonin kiyaye muhalli.

Adireshin tashar internet na CEPT wato asusun kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin shi ne:

http://www.cepf.org.cn/

Aminan halitta

Reshen cibiyar al'adu mai launin kore na cibiyar samar da tsofaffin littattafan al'adu ta kasar Sin (wanda akan kira da sunan Friends ofi Nature wato aminan halitta ya zama kungiyar kiyaye muhalli mai zaman kanta ta farko ta kasar Sin wadda aka kafa a watan Maris na shekarar 1994 bayan samun yardar gwamnatin kasar. Muhimmin mutun da ya kafa kungiyar shi ne shehun malami Liang Congxie, mamban majalisar ba da shawara kan harkokin siyasa na kasar Sin, kuma babban malamin cibiyar samar da tsofaffin littattafan al'adu ta kasar. Manufar kungiyar "Aminan Halitta" ita ce tafiyar da aikin ba da ilmin muhalli ga jama'a, da ba da shawara kan wayewar kai mai launin kore, da kafa da kuma yin furofagandar al'adu mai launin kore kuma mai sigar musamman ta kasar Sin, da hanzarta ci gaban sha'anin kiyaye muhalli na kasar.

Adireshin tashar internet ta Aminan Halitta shi ne: http://www.fon.org.cn/

Beijing mai launin kore

"Beijing mai launin kore" wata kungiyar masu hidima ta sa kai ce ta kiyaye muhalli wadda ta kafu a kan giza-gizan internet wadda kuma take tafiyar da tsarin sa kai sosai, tana tafiyar da harkokinta gwargwadon iyawarta, kuma ta dukufa kan aikin shigar da jama'a cikin sha'anin kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin. Bisa matsayinta na wata kungiyar masu sa kai wadda ta kafu ba da dadewa ba kuma take cike da kuruciya, kungiyar "Beijing mai launin kore" ta taba ba da shawara don ta da harkar "ceton barewa ta Tibet".

Adireshin tashar internet na Beijing mai launin kore na kasar sin shi ne: http://gbj.grchina.net/

Sauran hukumomin kiyaye muhalli na gwamnatin kasar Sin

Gizagizan internet na yin tsimin albarkatu da kiyaye muhalli na kasar Sin: http://www.drccu.gov.cn

Hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta birnin Beijing:

http://www.bjepb.gov.cn

Hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta birnin Shanghai:

http://www.sepb.gov.cn

Layin wayar da ake iya samu a kullum ta muhallin birnin Shanghai: http://www.envir. online.sh.cn

Hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta lardin Guangdong:

http://www.gdepb.gov.cn

Hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta lardin Fujian:

http://fjepb.fj.cn.net

Hukumar kiyaye muhalli ta jihar Sinjiang:

http://www.xepb.gov.cn

Gizagizan sadarwa na kiyaye muhallin lardin Liaoning:

http://www.lnepb.gov.cn

Gizagizan sadarwa na kiyaye muhallin lardin Anhui:

http://www.aepb.gov.cn

Hukumar samun ci gaba mai dorewa ta lardin Anhui:

http://www.anhuisd.com

Layin wayar da ake iya samu a kullum na kiyaye muhallin birnin Shenyang: http://www.syepe.com

Cibiyar binciken kimiyya ta kiyaye muhallin birnin Chengdu:

http://cdhbkys.ep.net.cn

Hukumar samun ci gaba mai dorewa ta birnin Shenyang:

http://www.sdos.org

Kungiyar NGO wato sauran kungiyoyin kiyaye muhalli

da ba na hakumar kasar Sin ba(NGO)

Adireshin tashar internet na ofishin binciken muhalli da bunkasuwa shi ne, http://www.ied.org.cn

Adireshin tashar internet na kauyen duniya da ke birnin Beijing shi ne, http://www.gvbchina.org/chinese.htm

Adireshin tashar internet na amiman duniya (de ke Hongkong) shi ne, http://www.foe.org.hk

Adireshin tashar internet na kungiyar binciken maganar samun ci gaba mai dorewa ta kasar Sin shi ne,

http://cssd.acca21.org.cn/99plan.html

Adireshin tashar internet na kungiyar masu sa kai ta kasar mahaifa mai launin kore shi ne,

http://www.greenearth.hypermart.net

>>[Hadin gwiwar tsakanin Kasar Sin da Kasashen Duniya]

Hadin gwiwa da yin mu'amala kan ayyukan kiyaye muhalli

tsakanin kasashen duniya

Bisa matsayin wata kasa mai tasowa mafi girma da babbar kasa wadda ta samu ciga wajen muhalli, kasar Sin ta zama wata muhimmiyar 'yar wasa a kan dakalin wasa na muhallin kasashen duniya. Kasar Sin ta nuna himma da kwazo wajen shiga harkokin waje kan muhallin duk duniya baki day kuma ta ba da taimako yadda ya kamata, kuma ta yi ayyuka masu amfani wajen muhalli da raya kasashen duniya.

A shekara ta 1972, gwamnatin kasar sin ta aika da kungiyar wakilanta don halartar taron muhallin billa Adama na farko da aka yi a birnin Stockholm. A shekarar 1992, tsohon firayim minista Li Peeng ya shugabanci kungiyar wakilan gwamnatin kasar sin don halartar taron shugabannin muhalli da bunkasuwa da aka yi a birnin Rio de Janeiro, kuma ya shige gaba wajen daddale "shirin yarjejeniyar sauye-sauyen yanayin sama", da "yarjejeniyar ire-iren halittu masu rai". Wannan ya samu babban yabo daga wajen kasashen duniya. A watan Agusta na shekarar 2002, tsohon firayim minista Zhu Rongji ya shugabanci kungiyar wakilan gwamnatin kasar Sin don halartar taron shugabannin samun ci gaba mai dorewa da aka yi a birnin Johannesburg, kuma ya sanar da cewa, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta riga ta yarda da "takardar shawara ta Kyoto", wannan ya samu yabo daga ko'ina a kasashen duniya.

A gun taron kasashen duniya kan muhalli da shawarwari da aka yi domin daddale yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya, kasar Sin a kullum tana tsaye kan ka'idar kiyaye muhallin duk duniya, kuma kasashe masu tasowa da kasashe masu sukuni suna da hakki iri daya, amma akwai bambanci a tsakaninsu, kuma tana tsayawa-tsayin daka a gefen kasashe masu tasowa, da yin adawa da nuna daular tasku wajen muhalli, da nuna kiyayya ga shisshigin da ake yi wa harkokin kasa na sauran kasashe ta hanyar fakewa da batun muhalli. Idan aka duba tarihi da kuma halin da ake ciki yanzu, sai a gane cewa, ya kamata muhimmin alhakin matsalolin muhalli na zamanin yanzu ya rataya a wuyan kasashe masu sukuni dukka, amma kasashe masu tasowa kuwa su ne masu shan barna. Sabo da haka, kasashe masu ci gaba suna da hakkin daukar matakai da farko, kuma su taimaki kasashe masu tasowa ga yin kokarin kiyaye muhallin duk duniya.

Ban da wannan kuma, kungiyoyin kiyaye muhalli da ba na gwamnati ba na kasashe daban-daban na duniya, kamar su asusun halitta na duniya, da asusun kiyayen dabbobi na kasashen duniya su ma sun yi hadin gwiwa a tsakaninsu da sassan da abin ya shafa da kungiyoyi masu zaman kansu na kasar Sin ta fannoni da yawa, kuma an samu sakamako mai yakini.

Kasar Sin ta kama gaba a tsakanin kasashen duniya wajen kafa "kwamitin hadin gwiwa tsakanin kasashen duniya kan muhalli da bunkasuwar kasar Sin". Bisa matsayinsa na wata babbar hukumar ba da shawara ga gwamnatin kasar, wannan kwamiti yana hade da shahararrun mutane da kwararru fiye da 40 na duniya. Cikin shekaru fiye da 10 da suka wuce bayan kafuwar wannan kwamiti, ya ba da shawarwari masu amfani da yawa ga gwamnatin kasar Sin, kuma kasashen duniya sun yi masa yabo cewa, shi ne mai ba da misalin koyo wajen hadin gwiwar kasashen duniya kan muhalli.

Yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya da kasar Sin ta shiga ciki dangane da muhalli

Bisa hali mai yakini da daukar alhaki bisa wuyanta ga sha'anin kiyaye muhalli da albarkatun kasashen duniya, kasar Sin ta shiga ko kuma ta daddale yarjeniyoyi fiye da 30 dangane da kiyaye muhalli da albarkatun kasashen duniya. Ga yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya da kasar sin ta halarta dangane da sha'anin kiyaye muhali da albarkatu:

"Yarjejeniyar kasashen duniya kan matsalar hana kazancewar tekuna sabo da man fetur" (shekarar 1954, London)

"Yarjejeniyar kamun kifaye da kare albarkatun hallitu masu rai na cikin tekun kasa da kasa" (shekarar 1958, Geneva)

"Yarjejeniyar kasashen duniya kan sarrafa aikin kamun giwar ruwa" (shekarar 1946, Washington)

"Yarjejeniyar kiyaye tsire-tsire ta Asiya ta kudu maso gabas da tekun Pasific" (shekarar 1958, Rume)

"Yarjejeniyar shiyyar Continental shelf wato shiyyar gabar teku" (shekarar 1958, Geneva)

"Yarjejeniyar the South pole wato kuriyar duniya ta kudu" (shekarar 1959, Washington)

"Yarjejeniyar kungiyar yanayin sama ta duniya" (shekarar 1947, Washington)

"Yarjejeniyar kasashen duniya dangane da alhakin da ya rataya bisa wuyan jama'a sabo da kazancewar man fetur" (shekarar 1969, Brussels)

"Yarjejeniyar kiyaye abubuwan al'adun gargajiya da na tarihin duniya" (1972, Paris)

"yarjejeniya kan ka'idojin da ya kamata kasashe daban-daban su bi wajen bincike da yin amfani da sararin samaniya ciki har da tafiyar wata da sauran abubuwan samaniya" (shekarar 1972, Moscow)

"Yarjejeniyar hana kazancewar teku sabo da barbashi da sauran dagwalan da aka zubar" (shekarar 1972, London)

"Yarjejeniyar hana yalwata da kera da kuma tanada makamai masu guba da na yada cututtuka da annoba da wargaza irin wadannan makamai" (shekarar 1972, London)

"Takardar shawara kan tsoma baki cikin matsalolin kazancewar tekun kasa da kasa da aka yi ba domin man fetur ba" (shekarar 1973, London)

"Yarjejeniyar kasashen duniya kan hana kazancewar muhalli sabo da jiragen ruwa" (shekarar 1978, London)

"Yarjejeniyar kiyaye hakikanan abubuwa na nukiliya" (shekarar 1979, Vienna)

"Yarjejeniyar Vienna kan kiyaye Ozonosphere wato iskar Ozono" (shekarar 1985, Vienna)

"Yarjejeniyarba da taimako ga daidaita matsanancin halin da ake ciki sabo da hadarin nukiliya ko tartsatsin haske" (shekarar 1985, Vienna)

"Yarjejeniyar ba da labari kan hadarin nukiliya tun da wuri" (shekarar 1986, Vienna)

"Takardar shawara ta Montreal dangane da raguwar Ozonosphere wato iskar Ozono" (shekarar 1987, Montreal)

"Yarjejeniyar giza-gizan tsakiya na kiwon amfanin ruwa ta Asiya da tekun Pasific" (shekarar 1988, Bangkok)

"Yarjejeniyar Basel kan sarrafa abubuwan wofi masu danja da aka kawar da su da kuma daidaita su a kasashen ketare" (shekarar 1989, Basel)

"Yarjejeniyar shirin sauye-sauyen yanayin sama ta M.D.D." (shekarar 1992, Rio de Janeiro)

"Yarjejeniyar ire-iren halittu masu rai" (shekarar 1992 Rio de Janeiro)

"Yarjejeniyar yin rigakafi ta hanyar hadin gwiwa tsakanin gwamnatin Jamhuriyar jama'ar Sin da Jamhuriyar gurguzu ta Tarayyar soviet kan kiyaye gandun daji da hana gobara" (An daddale yarjejeniyar a shekarar 1980)

"Yarjejeniyar kiyaye tsuntsaye da muhallin zaman rayuwarsu tsakanin gwamnatin Jamhuriyar jama'ar Sin da ta kasar Japan" (An daddale yarjejeniyar a shekarar 1981)

"Yarjejeniyar kiyaye tsauntsaye da muhallin zaman rayuwarsu tsakanin gwamnatin Jamhuriyar jama'ar Sin da ta kasar Australiya" (An daddale yarjejeniyar a shekarar 1986)

"Yarjejeniyar yin amfani da makamashin nukiliya cikin lumana kuma ta hanyar hadin gwiwa tsakanin Jamhuriyar jama'ar Sin da Jamhuriyar Islam ta Pakistan" (An daddale yarjejeniyar a shekarar 1986)

Ban da wadannan yarjeniyoyi kuma, kasar Sin ta nuna goyon baya mai yakini ga muhimman takardu da yawa wadanda suka shafi maganar kiyaye muhalli da albarkatun kasashen duniya, kuma ta shigo da tunanin wadannan takardu cikin dokokin shari'a da manufofinta. Wadannan takardu suna hade da"Sanarwar M.D.D. kan muhallin dan Adam" wadda aka bayar a shekarar 1972 a birnin Stockholm na kasar Sweden, da "Babban tsarin ka'ida na kiyaye albarkatun halitta na duniya" da kasashe da yawa na duniya suka bayar a sa'i daya a shekarar 1980, da"Sanarwar Nairobi"da aka bayar a shekarar 1982 a birnin Nairobi na kasar Kenya da "Sanarwar Rio de Janeiro kan muhalli da bunkasuwa"wadda aka bayar a shekarar 1992 a birnin Rio de Janeiro na kasar Brazil.

Kasar Sin ta yi kokarin aiwatar da

yarjejeniyar kasashen duniya kan muhalli

Kasar Sin ta nuna himma don sauke nauyin da ya katama ta dauka cikin yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya da ta shiga dangane da muhalli. Game da muhimman yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya da yawa kan muhalli, dukkansu kasar Sin ta tsara shirye-shirye masu amfani don aiwatar da su. Alal misali, ta tsai da "Tsarin kasar Sin na kawar da kayayyaki masu lahanta iskar Ozon sannu a hankali" da "Rahoton kasar Sin kan batun aiwatar da yarjejeniyar ire-iren halittu masu rai", kuma ta dauki hakikanan matakai a jere domin aiwatar da yarjeniyoyin kasashen duniya. Cikin wannan babi, mun yi bayani kan yadda kasar Sin take aiwatar da "Takardar shawara ta Montreal kan kayayyakin lahanta iskar Ozon" da "Yarjejeniyar ire-iren halittu masu rai" kawai.

Kasar Sin da "Takardar shawara ta Montreal"

Cikin shekaru 10 da suka wuce, kasar Sin ta nuna himma da kwazo wajen halartar ayyuka daban-daban da aka yi a kasashen duniya don kiyaye Ozonosphere wato iskar Ozono. A shekarar 1986 da ta 1987, kasar Sin ta aika da kungiyar wakilanta daidai don halartar taron kungiyar ayyukan kiyaye iskar Ozono da taron daddale "Takardar shawara ta Montreal". A shekarar 1989 kuma kasar Sin ta shiga cikin "yarjejeniyar" da gaske, a gun taro na farko na kasashen da suka daddale yarjejeniyar kuma, ta shige gaba wajen gabatar da shirin shawara game da kafa asusun kiyaye iskar Ozono tsakanin gefuna da yawa. A shekarar 1990, kasar Sin ta hada kai da kasashe daban-daban na duniya don su himmantu ga shiga aikin gyara wannan "Takardar shawara". A shekarar 1991 kuma kasar Sin ta shiga cikin gyararren shirin "Takardar shawara" na London da gaske, kuma an kafa ofishin karamar kungiyar shugabancin ayyukan kiyaye iskar Ozono na kasar Sin wanda ma'aikatu da kwamitoci da hukumomi da manyan kamfanoni da na kungiyoyi 15 suka halarta, wanda kuma yake kula da harkokin aiwatar da "Takardar shawara". A shekarar 1992, ta kama gaba wajen tsai da "Tsarin kasar Sin na kawar da kayayyaki masu lahanta iskar Ozono sannu a hankali", kuma an samu yarda a farkon shekarar 1993 daga wajen majalisar gudanarwa da kwamitin zartaswa na asusun da ke tsakanin gefuna da yawa. A shekarar 1994 kuma an tsai da "Karin bayani kan tsarin kawar da kayayyaki masu lahanta iskar Ozono na sana'ar yin ganyen taba sannu a hankali." A shekarar 1995, kasar Sin ta kama gaba wajen tsai da muhimman tsare-tsaren kawar da kayayyakin da aka kayyada su sannu a hankali cikin sana'o'i 8 wato sana'ar yin roba da leda da firiji na gida da na amfanin masana'antu da air conditioner wato injunan samar da sanyi na motoci, da wani irin ruwan maganin kashe wuta, da sana'ar tsabtace kayayyakin lantarki da kuma aikin fitar da kayayyaki da aka kayyade, kuma an samu yarda daga wajen kwamitin zartaswa na asusun da ke tsakanin gefuna da yawa.

Ya zuwa yanzu, yawan ayyukan da kasar Sin ta gabatar kuma ta samu yarda daga wajen kwamitin zartaswa na asusun da ke tsakanin gefuna da yawa ya kai 156, kuma jimlar kudin da ta samu daga gefuna da yawa ta kai dollar miliyan 105 ta hanyar hukumomin zartaswa guda 4 wato bankin duniya da hukumar shirin raya kasa ta M.D.D., da kungiyar masana'antu da samun bunkasuwa ta M.D.D., da hukumar tsara fasalin muhalli ta M.D.D. da kuma kasashen Amurka da Canada da Jamus da Denmark. Idan an gama duk wadannan ayyuka, za a iya rage kayayyakin da ake kayyadewa masu nauyin Ton dubu 31.8. (An yi wannan lissafi ne bisa yawan boyayyen karfin Ozonosphere wato iskar Ozono da aka kashe).

Kasar Sin da "yarjejeniyar ire-iren halittu masu rai"

Bayan babban taron M.D.D. da aka yi a shekarar 1992 kan muhalli da bunkasuwa, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta yi abubuwa bisa sigar musamman ta kasar, kuma ta nuna halin daukar nauyi cikin nitsuwa domin cika alkawarin da ta dauka a gun babban taron, ta tsai da muhimman tsare-tsaren samun bunkasuwar tattalin arzikin kasa a kai a kai, kuma ta nuna irin wannan tunani na muhimman tsare-tsare cikin manufofin tattalin arziki daban-daban na kasar. "Ajandar karni na 21 ta kasar Sin wato Takardar bayani kan kidayar mutane da muhalli da rayar da kasar Sin a karni na 21" wadda majalisar gudanarwa ta kasar ta bayar a shekarar 1994, ta ba da cikakkiyar shaida ga muhimman tsare-tsaren raya kasa a kai a kai. "Shirin raya tattalin arzikin kasa da zamantakewa na 9 na shekaru 5 na Jamhuriyar jama'ar Sin da tsarin ka'ida na manufar dogon wa'adi ta shekarar 2010" da aka tsayar a gun babban taron wakilan jama'ar kasa da aka yi a shekarar 1996 sun kara tabbatar da cewa, kasar Sin ta tsaya kan aiwatar da ka'idar samun bunkasuwa mai dorewa.

Gwamnatin kasar Sin ta bayyana cewa, sarrafa albarkatun halitta a kai a kai da kyakkyawan muhallin halittu sun zama sharadi na farko ga aiwatar da muhimman tsare-tsaren samun bunkasuwa mai dorewa, kuma ta hanyar kiyaye ire-iren halittu masu rai, da hana zaizayewar ruwa da kasa da kwararowar hamada, da kara fadin kurmi da kyautata muhallin halittun birane da na kauyuka, da yin rigakafi da kuma shawo kan matsalar lalacewar muhalli da kazancewar wuri, da nuna himma ga shiga cikin ayyukan kiyaye muhallin duk duniya baki daya ta hanyar hadin gwiwa da daukar sauran matakai masu amfani domin aiwatar da muhimman tsare-tsaren kasar na samun bunkasuwa mai dorewa. Cikin duk manufofi da dokoki da kuma ayyukan da ma'aikatu daban-daban na gwamnatin tsakiya suka yi, kuma cikin shirye-shiryen da gwamnatoci na wurare daban-daban suka tsara domin bunkasa tattalin arzikin kasa da zaman al'umma, an rubuta abubuwan kiyaye da kuma aiwatar da ire-iren halittu masu rai har cikin dogon lokaci.

Cikin lokacin rikon kwarya daga tsararren tattalin arzikin gargajiya zuwa tattalin arziki na kasuwanni, gwamnatin kasar Sin ta dukufa kan aikin noma wanda ya sauya daga tsanantaccen tsarin tattalin arziki zuwa sassautacce wato tattarawa. Sabo da yawan mutanen ya karu fiye da kima, yawan albarkatun halittu masu rai da aka aiwatar da su ya wuce yadda ya kamata, shi ya sa muhallin halittu yana ta lalacewaa kowace rana, zaizayewar ruwa da kasa da kuma kwararowar hamada suna ta kara tsanani, saurin lalacewar albarkatun halittu yana ta karuwa, duk wadannan sun hana ci gaban tattalin arzikin kasa sosai, musamman ma sun kara kawo talauci ga shiyyoyin da aka lahanta muhallin halittu. Gwamnatin kasar Sin ta mai da muhimmanci ga yin gyare-gyaren manufofin tattalin arzikin kauyuka, ta himmantar da manoma da su bi hanyar aikin noma ta intensive wato tattarawa, su yi dashe-dashen bishiyoyi da ciyayi, su daidaita matsalar zaizayewar ruwa da kasa, da yin rigakafi da kuma hana kwararowar hamada da dai sauran ayyukan kyautata halittu, da yin amfani da fasahar halittu cikin aikin gona. Matakan da aka dauka na kyautata halittu sun hada ayyukan bunkasa sha'anin noma da kiyaye da kuma aiwatar da ire-iren halittu masu rai yadda ya kamata.

Bayan da aka shafe shekaru da yawa ana ta yin aikace-aikacen kyautata halittu, an riga an takaita fasahohi da yawa kuma masu amfani. Alal misali, fasahar kafa gandunan bishiyoyi masu tare iska, da dasa itatuwa cikin hamada, da fasahar mayar da tuddai masu zagwanyewa don su zama gonaki, da kuma gina filayen noma da ake samun amfanin gona mai karko kuma mai armashi, da fasahar yin manyan ayyukan tsare ruwa da gina kananan mataran ruwa domin kiyaye kasa, da fasahar mayar da gonaki don su zama gandunan daji da filayen ciyayi da sauran tsire-tsiren halittu, da fasahar hada ayyukan kafa gadunan daji na tattalin arziki da na halittu da dasa itatuwa da ciyayi, da fasahar yin aikin noma ba tare da shayar da gonaki ba, ko kuma shayar da gonaki cikin tsimin ruwa, wato a bi hanya mai ci gaba wajen fasahar aikin gona, da fasahar kafa cikakken tsarin yin amfani da tuddai da ruwa da gonaki da gandunan daji da kuma hanyoyi, da warware matsalolin kwarin kananan koguna daga duk fannoni, da fasahar dasa itatuwa da ciyayi kan tuddai ta hanyar yin kwangila, da fasahar daidaita matsalolin lalacewar filayen ciyayi wato a hana kwararowar hamada da kyautata sauruka masu kanwa-kanwa da sauran fasahohi. Duk wadannan fasahohi da aikace-aikacen da aka yi sun ba da babban taimako mai yakini ga kiyaye ire-iren halittu masu rai.

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