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Shin Amurka na barazana ne ga tsarin dokokin cinikayya na duniya?
2018-04-09 14:44:33 cri

Amurka ta yi kaurin suna wajen goyon bayan kungiyar kula da harkokin cinikayya ta duniya WTO. Ita da kanta ta yi mana cewa, akwai bukatar gudanar da cinikayya bisa kiyaye dokoki duniya. Sai dai da alama tunanin shugaba Donald Trump ya saba da wannan batu. Saboda a ganinsa, WTO tsaiko take kawowa Amurka, la'akari da tsarinsa na sanya Amurka a gaban komai. Wannan batu ya sa kasashen duniya sun fara tunanin ko Amurka na dab da yin watsi da daddaden tsarin cinikayya na duniya dake akwai gomman shekaru da suka gabata.

A farkon watan da ya gabata ne, gwamnatin Trump ta sanar da sanya harajin kaso 25 bisa dari kan kayayyakin karafa da kuma kaso goma kan kayayyakin gorar ruwa da ake shigarwa kasar. Amurka ta bayyana cewa, daukar matakin ya zama dole, domin kare kasuwar cikin gida. Matakin da bangarori da dama ba su yi na'am da shi ba, musamman wasu daga cikin kawayenta na kut-da-kut. Inda su ma suke ganin matakin a matsayin yadda yake, wato daukar matakan cinikayya masu tsauri don kare kasuwar cikin gida.

Bayan korafin da kasashe da dama suka yi wa kungiyar WTO, gwamnatin Trump ta ware wasu kasashe daga jerin wadanda ta sanyawa harajin, musammam kawayenta, da suka hada da Tarayyar Turai da Australia da Canada da kuma Koriya ta kudu.

Sai dai, ban da kasashen Sin da Rasha.

Ware wadannan kasashe na wucin gadi, bai warware matsalar da ta sanyata daukar matakin kara harajin ba. Bisa daukar matakin kashin kai na sanya harajin maimakon neman mafita ta hannun WTO, Amurka ta take dokokin kungiyar ta duniya. Kuma bisa yin hakan, tana kokari ne na kaucewa binciken dalilin da ya sa ta ware wasu kasashe.

Gwamnatin Trump ba ta tsaya a nan ba, don ko a karshen watan Maris da ya gabata, ta kara yin gaban kanta, inda ta sanar da shirinta na sanya haraji kan kayayyakin da Sin ke shigar da su kasar, wadanda darajarsu ta kai dala biliyan 50, sakamakon binciken sashe na 301.

Sashe na 301 ya kasance tamkar wani mugun makami ne da Amurka ke amfani da shi a fannin takaddamar cinikayya. Ta yi amfani da shi wajen dakile ci gaban Japan a shekarun 1980. Kuma a karshen shekarun 1990, kungiyar tarayyar Turai ta kai karar Amurka gaban kungiyar WTO sakamakon amfani da wannan sashe na 301.

A shekarar 1999, WTO ta zartar da wani hukunci na kin amincewa da yin amfani da ra'ayin bangare daya, musamman ga kasashen dake da karfin fada a ji ta fuskar karfin tattalin a duniya. A bisa hukuncin da ta zartar, kungiyar ta nuna cewa, a mafi yawan lokaci bai dace a yi amfani da tsarin ra'ayin bangare daya ba.

Kungiyar WTO ta yi watsi da matakin da Amurka ta dauka sakamakon take hukucin dokokin kungiyar ta WTO. Sai dai kungiyar ta nuna a fili cewa, saboda Amurka ta fito fili karara, a hukumance, ta sha nanatawa, kuma ba tare da gindaya wasu sharruda ba cewa, za ta yi amfani da sashe na 301 don kara haraji bisa ga sakamakon binciken WTO da hukuncin da ta zartar.

Amma wannan tabbacin bai kasance a bakin komai ba, kawai ya kasance wani roman baka ne a lokacin da gwamnatin Trump ta yanke shawarar yin wulakancin da taga dama wato kamar a ce: "Ka ba ni wasu kudaden kashewa, idan ba haka ba, zan yi maka duka da babbar sanda!"

Darakta janar na kungiyar ta WTO Roberto Azevêdo, ya yi gargadin cewa, matakin da Amurka ta dauka na yin gaban kanta na wargaza tsarin cinikayya, "zai iya jefa tattalin arzikin duniya cikin mawuyacin hali a daidai lokacin da tattalin arzikin duniyar ke kokarin farfadowa, ko da yake hadarin yana cigaba da karuwa a sassan duniya."

Wannan shi ne irin shaguben da firaiministar kasar Norway Erna Solberg ta yi, inda ta kalubalanci kalaman shugaba Trump, tana mai cewa, wannan ya nuna a fili cewa Amurka babbar barazana ce ga tsarin yarjejeniyar ciniki cikin 'yanci.

A yayin da dangantaka ke kara yin tsami tsakanin Beijing da Washington ba tare da wasu alamu dake nuna yiwuwar samun sassautuwar al'amurra ba, tsarin cinikayyar kasa da kasa yana cikin mummunan garari. Idan shugaba Trump ya ci gaba da tsayawa kan matsayinsa, kuma kasar Amurka ta yi fatali da dokokin kungiyar WTO, ko wace kasa a duniya na iya fuskantar barazanar biyan makudan kudaden haraji wanda zai iya haddasa takaddamar cinikayya a nan gaba.

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